Jacques Thibaud

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Jacques Thibaud jedna je od nezaobilaznih ličnosti u povijesti violinizma, a svakako najistaknutiji predstavnik moderne francuske violinske škole.

Djetinjstvo i školovanje

Rođen je 27. rujna 1880. u Bordeauxu u Francuskoj. Violinu je počeo učiti uz svoga oca, Alardovog učenika, a u dobi od 13 godina upisuje se na pariški konzervatorij u klasu M. Marsicka gdje bilježi velike uspjehe. Znao je pričati kako je Marsick tražio za svaki sat (tri puta tjedno) nove etide – Gavinies, Rode, Fiorillo, Dont, a etide i ljestvice je zvao „kruh svagdašnji za violiniste“. Često bi svoje studente znao pratiti na klaviru ili improvizirati pratnju na violini, a Thibaud ga je toliko volio da je nastavio raditi s njim i nakon završetka konzervatorija. U dobi od 20 godina napušta mjesto koncertnog majstora u orkestru Concerts Collone i posvećuje se solističkim nastupima. Za vrijeme prvog svjetskog rata biva ranjen zbog čega je morao svoju violinsku tehniku graditi od početka, a u izgradnji mišića pomagalo mu je i aktivno bavljenje tenisom i golfom.

Karijera

Tijekom svoje karijere bio je cijenjen ne samo kao izniman solist, nego i komorni glazbenik, posebice nastupajući u klavirskome triu, najprije sa svojom braćom, a potom i u poznatom triu Cortot-Casals-Thibaud. Bio je i vrstan pedagog, poznatiji studenti su mu Manuel Quiroga, Eric Rosenblith, Joan Field i Yfrah Neaman, a i danas se koriste neke njegove pedagoške tehnike (kao npr. vježba Thibaudov potez, opisana ovdje). Njegov dobar prijatelj Eugène Ysaÿe mu je posvetio svoju 2. Sonatu za violinu solo.

1943. uz Marguerite Long osniva natjecanje za violiniste i pijaniste koje se održava svake godine u Parizu (od 2011. i za pjevače) – Long-Thibaud-Crespin Competition, danas jedno od najznačajnijih svjetskih natjecanja.

Violine

Svirao je na Stradivarijevoj violini iz 1720., no svake godine tijekom godišnjeg odmora violinu je slao majstoru na dva mjeseca jer je smatrao da se i violina mora odmoriti. Za to vrijeme je svirao na iznimno vjernoj kopiji te iste violine koju mu je napravio tadašnji najbolji pariški graditelj Caressa, a bio je među prvim violinistima koji su svirali na metalnim žicama.

Poginuo je 1. rujna 1953. u padu aviona nadomak Nice. U nesreći je uništena i njegova Stradivari violina.

Pristup sviranju

Često je isticao kako ne postoji velika razlika između francuske i belgijske violinske škole (Vieuxtemps, De Beriot, Leonard, Massart, Marsick, Eugene Ysaye) i da su se s vremenom stopile po pitanju sistema tehnike lijeve i desne ruke i produkcije tona, a kao najveću teškoću u sviranju violine navodio je tehniku gudala, čak 80%. Smatrao je da se gudalo mora koristiti na potpuno prirodan način, da ne postoji univerzalan način držanja i povlačenja gudala koji bi vrijedio kao pravilo za sve, nego da svatko treba pronaći svoj prirodan i ugodan način kojim bi došao do optimalne interpretacije djela. Isto vrijedi i za općenito sviranje – smatrao je kako treba njegovati prirodni način sviranja jer je jedino on kroz svoju individualnost odraz osobnosti glazbenika.


“Razlika između velikog i prosječnog učitelja je u tome što prvi prepoznaje da je sviranje gudalom individualna stvar, različita kod svakog pojedinog učenika.“

Ševčika nije smatrao dobrim učiteljem, nije odobravao njegov mehanički pristup, bez duše. Rekao je kako je taj sistem stvorio određeni broj dobrih „mehaničara“ na violini, ali i ubio neke velike talente (aludirajući na Kubelika). Najviše je cijenio svoje suvremenike i prijatelje Sarasatea i Ysayea.

Ovo je jedna od rijetkih video snimki na kojima Jacques Thibaud svira, na kojoj se može vidjeti osebujan stil i jedinstvena tehnika.




Jacques Thibaud is one of the inevitable personalities in the history of violin playing, and certainly the most prominent representative of the modern French violin school.

Childhood and school years

He was born on September 27, 1880 in Bordeaux, France. He got his first violin lessons from his father, Alard’s student, and at the age of 13 he enrolled at the Paris Conservatory in the class of M. Marsick, and had great successes as a student. He used to tell that Marsick asked from his students to prepare new etudes – Gavinies, Rode, Fiorillo, Dont, for every lesson (three times a week), and that he called etudes and scales „the everyday bread for violinists”. Marsick often accompanied his students on piano or improvised accompaniment on violin, and Thibaud loved him so much that he continued to work with him even after he graduated. At the age of 20 he left the position of concert master at Concert Collone orchestra and devoted himself to solo performances. During the First World War he was wounded, so he had to rebuild his violin technique allover again, and tennis and golf playing helped him in strengthening muscles.

Career

During his career he was honored not only as an exceptional soloist, but also as a chamber musician, especially performing in a piano trio, first with his brothers and then in the famous trio Cortot-Casals-Thibaud. He was excellent pedagogue, his most famous students were Manuel Quiroga, Eric Rosenblith, Joan Field and Yfrah Neaman, and some of his pedagogical techniques (such as the Thibaud movement described here) are widely used even today. His good friend Eugene Ysaÿe devoted his 2nd Solo Sonata to him.

In 1943, together with Marguerite Long, he founded a competition for violinists and pianists, held every year in Paris (from 2011 also for singers) – Long-Thibaud-Crespin Competition, one of the most significant competitions in the world.

Violins

He used to play the 1720 Stradivari violin, but every year during his annual break the violin was sent to the violin maker’s shop in Paris for two months because he thought the violin needed a rest, too. During this time he played on an extremely precise copy of that same violin which was made by the Parisian violin maker Caressa, the best maker of the time in Paris. Thibaud was among the first violinists to play on metal strings.

He died on September 1, 1953 in the plane crash near Nice. His Stradivari violin was destroyed in the accident.

Aproach to playing

He often pointed out that there is no big difference between French and Belgian violin schools (Vieuxtemps, De Beriot, Leonard, Massart, Marsick, Eugene Ysaye) as they have, in time, been merged with the system of finger and bow techniques and tone production. The biggest difficulty in playing the violin, in his oppinion, was bowing, even 80%. He felt that it needs to be used in a completely natural way, that there is no universal way of bowing and that everyone should find their natural, comfortable way through which he would be able to achive the optimal interpretation. The same is true for playing in general – he thought that natural way of playing needs to be nurtured because it’s the only way to reflecting the personality of musician and his individuality.

„The difference between a great and a mediocre teacher lies in the fact that the first recognizes that bowing is an individual matter, different in the case of each individual pupil.“

Thibaud didn’t considered Ševčik to be a good teacher, he did not approve his mechanical approach, without the soul. He said that this system created a certain number of good “mechanicians” on the violin, but also killed some great talents (alluding to Kubelik). He most appreciated his contemporaries and great friends Sarasate and Ysaye.

This is one of the rare videos of Jacques Thibaud playing in which we can see his peculiar style and unique technique.

 „A violinist’s natural manner of playing is the one he should cultivate; since it is individual, it really represents him.“

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Jacques Thibaud
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4 thoughts on “Jacques Thibaud

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